Eye Health and Diseases
Our eyes, which are one of our five senses, provide us to hold on to life by allowing to see the beauties of the world. They have an important place on learning and perception. Age, genetic diseases and external factors may affect them negatively. But lots of treatment methods on eye diseases have been developed with today's technology. Many eye diseases can be treated with robotic methods. The most important factor on eye diseases is early diagnosis, too. Therefore any discomfort should not be ignored and visual inspections should be done periodically.
Eye Diseases and Their Treatments
A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. There are especial condensers in the structure of our eyes. A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other. Cataract occurs as these consenders become transparent in advanced ages due to the external factors. All objects we see become blurrred. Also advanced level of cataract causes confusing the objects. Success rate on cataract treatment with surgical intervention is high.
Types of cataracts include:
- A subcapsular cataract occurs at the back of the lens. People with diabetes or those taking high doses of steroid medications have a greater risk of developing a subcapsular cataract.
- A nuclear cataract forms deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging.
- A cortical cataract is characterized by white, wedge-like opacities that start in the periphery of the lens and work their way to the center in a spoke-like fashion. This type of cataract occurs in the lens cortex, which is the part of the lens that surrounds the central nucleus.
This diasease which is known as eye pressure colloquially is defined as glaucoma. Glacuma, can be tretaed with early diagnosis and early treatment, is a complicated and serious disease in which damage to the optic nerve leads to progressive, irreversible vision loss. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness.For this reason regular annual eye exam must be taken.
Treatment of glacuma is done in 3 ways :
- Drug theraphy
- Surgical theraphy
- Laser theraphy
This diease, known as keratokonus, occurs with progressive thinning or sharpen of the transparent area, which is cornea, located on topcoat of the eye. Keratoconus, which means cone-shaped cornea, is disease in which the cornea slowly thins and protrudes forward. Over time, the shape of the central cornea is changed from a sphere to one that is more cone-like, giving the disease its name. This progressive corneal warping can cause high degrees of irregular astigmatism to occur, which cannot easily be improved by glasses or soft contact lenses. It occurs more in adolescence period and generally comes to people's attention in twenties. Treatment of this disease which begins to be more frequent with the aging of the world's population is done by expert physicians with regular follow-up. At first the glasses are applied to the treatment. Intraocular ring treatment is one of the effective methods. It is not visible when viewed from the outside but the patient can take out any time. There is nothing wrong with its lifetime arrest. The cause of keratoconus is unknown, but is likely due to many different factors. Like many diseases, a susceptibility to keratoconus is inherited from one’s parents. About 8% of keratoconus patients have a first degree family member who also has the disease. Sharpen of the cornea can be precluded by crosskinking method in which the molecules of the cornea can be influenced. Another treatment method of this is corneal transplantation. The operation is done with general anasthesia and the patient does not feel any pain. Finally, excimer laser is among the methods of precluding sharpen of the cornea, too.
Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of eye problems that affect the retina. This condition changes how the retina responds to light, making it hard to see. This disease is defined as hereditary retinal. Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic condition, meaning it can be passed down in families. Common symptoms include difficulty seeing at night and a loss of side (peripheral) vision. It is treated with especial glasses on which there is a camera by placing a chip in the center of the patient's vision.
An excimer laser is a powerful kind of laser which is nearly always operated in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region and generates nanosecond pulses. It is a surgical operation to treat eye defects like myopic, astigmatic and hypermetrope. Laser treatment is a FDA approved safe treatment technology. It is possible to be come out of the hospital within the same day. The doctor can determine whether your eyes are appropriate for excimer laser or not. Full eye examination and application of some further analysis are required to determine the convenience. It is possible to be come out of the hospital within the same day.
People who can not be treated with excimer laser :
- People who have had eye surgery before
- Keratokonus patients
- Breastfeeding mothers
- Rheumatism patients
- Diabetes patients
Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease which occurs in the center of the retina. It happens when a part of the of the retina called macula is damaged. With AMD you lose your central vision. It generally occurs on people who are over 50 and may cause vision problems in the advanced level.You cannot see fine details, whether you are looking at something close or far. But your peripheral (side) vision will still be normal. It can be removed with photodynamic theraphy developed as of 2015 and drug theraphy.